Pierre Chavel, Inst. d'Optique Lab Fabry, France
The relevance of diffraction concepts in the analysis of optical system performance
Part I - Basics
Diffraction integrals will be briefly revisited, stressing their relation to both Maxwell’s equations and the geometrical optics limit. A working model of the diffraction integral of wide use in aberration studies will be derived, and its relation to modeling in optical system design will be mentioned. The consequences on criteria (Rayleigh, Maréchal) and on the shape of modulation transfer functions will be derived.
Part II – Aberration Classification
The classification of aberrations in terms of the normal path delay will be covered. The standard Seidel and Zernike expansions will be critically discussed. As an illustration, the Maréchal criterion will be applied to the third order Zernike terms.
Pierre Chavel graduated in Physics from Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, with a Doctor of Science in 1979. Since 1972 he has been a research scientist at CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), working at the Institut d'Optique – Graduate School. His research interests include subwavelength diffractive optics, digital image processing, optical coherence, speckle and optoelectronic computing. He served as the Director of Laboratoire Charles Fabry (1998-2009). He currently coordinates Optical Engineering research at both the Palaiseau and the Saint-Etienne sites of Institut d’Optique and heads doctoral education at Institut d’Optique. He was a visiting scientist at the Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles during 1979-1980, and a Xiing Sheng Chern Visiting Professor at the Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin, China (2007-2010). A Fellow of OSA (Optical Society of America), SPIE (International Society of Optics and Photonics), and the European Optical Society, he served as the Secretary of the International Commission for Optics, 1990-2002. He is also the President of the French Physics Olympiads (2011-).
G.W. Forbes, QED Technologies Inc., Australia
Working with Non-Spherical Optics
Part I – Specifying nominal shapes for optical surfaces
Describing shape is a commonly encountered mathematical challenge, and optical surfaces are among the most precisely defined shapes in use. A tailor-made convention for characterizing their figure is described and the benefits delivered to multiple industries are discussed. The associated mathematics is constructed upon the foundation of a few guiding ideas related to manufacturability.
Part II – Manufacturability of aspheric and freeform optics
Surface shapes can be classified loosely according to their symmetries and the range of variation in their local principal curvatures. A sample of fabrication steps and tools is presented and the critical problem of understanding their limitations is discussed. The framework laid out in Part I is applied within this context and shown to be valuable from design through to optical finishing and testing.
Greg Forbes has been Senior Scientist at QED Technologies since 2000. Although the company is based in Rochester (NY, USA), Greg lives in Sydney (Australia). He developed the algorithms that underpin and drive QED’s sub-aperture polishing and stitched-interferometry systems that have helped transform the commercial production of a wide range of high-precision optics. Following his PhD in Theoretical Physics at the Australian National University, he was a Fulbright Fellow at the Optical Sciences Center (Tucson, 1984), a tenured faculty member of The Institute of Optics (Rochester, 1985-1994), and a Research Professor at Macquarie University (Sydney, 1994-2000). Greg was made an OSA Fellow in 1996 and, for his contributions to optical engineering, was awarded the OSA’s David Richardson Medal in 2012. Throughout his career, optical modeling has remained one of his primary interests.
Key motivator for these sessions:New technologies for their fabrication have enabled a growth in the complexity of shapes that can be employed in optics.
Juan C. Miñano, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
Part I-Introduction to Nonimaging Optics
Imaging vs Nonimaging Optics. Phase space representation of ray trajectories. Etendue conservation. Radiometry and Photometry. Power and Radiance conservation. Limits of concentration and collimation.
Part II-Nonimaging design techniques review
Point source design methods: The Oliker supporting paraboloids method. Generalized Cartesian ovals. SMS design method in 2D geometry. SMS Links, chains. SMS design method in 3D geometry. Free-form designs for Solid State Lighting (SSL). Free-form designs for Concentration Photovoltaics (CPV)
Juan C. Miñano (Gerona, Spain). Since 1982 is involved in Nonimaging Optics research activities, mainly applied to photovoltaic solar energy and optoelectronics. He has published more than 50 journal papers, given more than 100 Congress presentations, got several dozens patents and written several books. He has developed several optical design techniques with immediate application to optoelectronics applications, being the most well known of them the so called SMS design method. Since 1997 he is Professor at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid and since 2000 he also collaborates with LPI as Senior Scientist. In 2010 he was honored with the A.E. Conrady Award (2010) given by SPIE “in recognition of his exceptional contributions in developing new design methods and devices in Nonimaging Optics”.
Jie Qiao, Ph.D., M.B.A., Aktiwave LLC, USA
Technical Marketing for High-Technology Products and Innovations
This lecture introduces the concepts of strategic, functional and tactical marketing activities and strategies. The three major characteristics that affect marketing strategy and activities in high-tech industries are discussed, including market uncertainty, technological uncertainty, and competitive volatility. The development and marketing for high-technology products and innovations require market orientation and cross functional integration. The marketing strategy is contingent to the innovation types: incremental vs. breakthrough innovations. The high-tech industry specific marketing tactics are discussed. Finally the high-tech marketing job statistics and prospect in the U.S. are provided.
Dr. Jie Qiao has been a scientist in laser engineering and optical technologies at Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester since 2005. She was the principal investigator (PI) and project leader for developing an automatic interferometric tiling technique and realizing the world’s first 1.5-meter tiled-grating pulse compressor. She was also the PI for designing a meter-scale adaptive-deformable-grating based pulse compressor. Prior to that, she was a senior optical engineer in both startup and corporate settings, focusing on optical metrology, optical instrumentation, and photonics for optical communications. She obtained her Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering, the University of Texas at Austin in 2001, her M.S. in Precision Instruments and Fine Mechanics from Tsinghua University in 1997. She has recently obtained a M.B.A, concentrating in Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Finance, and Competitive & Organizational Strategy, from the Simon Graduate School of Business, University of Rochester.Dr. Qiao holds two US patents, has authored close to a dozen peer-reviewed journal articles, and has made more than 30 presentations in national and international conferences. She served as the Program Committee Co-Chair for the International Committee on Ultrahigh Intensity Lasers (ICUIL) 2012 conference. Her research interest lies in Metrology for Optics and Imaging Quality Testing, Laser Applications for Advanced Manufacturing, Active Optics and Controls, and Optical Instrumentation.Dr. Qiao is very interested in technical entrepreneurship and technology commercialization. She is a co-founder of an optical technology company Aktiwave LLC since 2008. She led the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) prototype development during the technology commercialization phase of her Ph.D. thesis by Radiant Photonics Inc. in 2001. She was a board member of the Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurs Association from 2003 to 2005. She recently taught the first lecture on “Technical Marketing on High-tech Products and Innovations” at the Simon Graduate School of Business, University of Rochester.
Jannick P. Rolland, University of Rochester, USA
Moving Away from Symmetry - Aberration Fields and Freeform Optics
Part I: A New Look at Optical Aberrations
Starting from H.H Hopkins’ scalar theory of aberrations, the foundations of nodal aberration theory will be introduced. The emerging multimodal field dependencies of the 3rd order aberrations will be described.
Part II: Freeform Optical Surfaces
An historical perspective on freeform optical surfaces will be given followed with recent developments in the inclusion of freeform surfaces in optical system design.
Jannick Rolland is the Brian J. Thompson Professor of Optical Engineering at the Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester and the director of the R.E. Hopkins Center for Optical Design and Engineering, the planned NSF Center for Freeform Optics (CeFO), and the ODALab (www.odalab-spectrum.org). Professor Rolland holds Appointments in the Department of Biomedical Engineering and in the Center for Visual Science. She holds 24 patents, has written 12 book chapters, and has over 100 peer-reviewed articles, including her work on augmented reality featured in Scientific American. Jannick Rolland earned an Optical Engineering Diploma from the Institut D'Optique, France, and a PhD in Optical Science from the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona. Professor Rolland served on the editorial board of the Journal Presence (MIT Press) (1996-2006) and as Associate Editor of Optical Engineering (1999-2004). She also serves as co-Chair of the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fabrication and Testing since 2008. Professor Rolland is a NYSTAR Fellow and a Fellow of OSA and SPIE. Professor Rolland’s interest lies in freeform optics and optical instrumentation innovation across a broad range of applications, with a key focus on metrology, 3D biomedical imaging, and head-worn displays for augmented reality. Professor Roland is a Director at Large on the OSA Board of Directors.
Kevin P. Thompson, Synopsys, Inc., USA
Moving Away from Symmetry - Application of Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) to Mirror Systems
Part 1, 2-Mirror Telescopes
Recently, the astronomy community introduced two mirror telescopes with thin active primary mirrors (e.g. NTT, VLT, VST, and LBT). NAT will be applied to provide a global perspective on the interaction of secondary mirror alignment and active primary mirror figure and the implications for wavefront sensors.
Part II, 3-Mirror Telescopes
Starting with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), there is a rising interest in understanding the effects of misalignments on both obscured and unobscured three mirror anastigmats (TMAs). The characteristic misalignment aberration fields of TMAs will be presented and discussed using the Full Field Display capabilities of CODE Vâ.
Kevin Thompson, Ph.D is the Group Director of R&D/Optics at Synopsys, Inc. Prior to the acquisition of Optical Research Associates (ORA, the developer of CODE V and LightToolsâ) by Synopsys, Inc., he was Vice President of Optical Engineering Services at ORA. Dr. Thompson’s primary technical expertise is as a lens designer including EUV lithography projection and illumination optics and as an aberration theorist, particularly for optical systems without symmetry. Kevin was the lead optical designer for the optics (null lenses) used to test, validate, and verify the new mirrors in both the off-axis aspheric COSTAR optics and the WF/PC II cameras in the completely successful Hubble First Servicing mission. Dr. Thompson conducted his PhD research with Dr. Roland Shack at the University of Arizona where he developed Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT), the optical aberration field descriptions for optical systems without positional symmetry, which is reported in JOSA A, July 2005 and in a series of papers appearing in JOSA A in 2008-2011. Kevin is an OSA Fellow and a Fellow of the SPIE. He is currently serving on the OSA Board of Meetings and the OSA Fellows Selection Committee and previously he was a JOSA A topical editor, geometrical optics, from 2003-2010 and the cochairman of the 1998 International Optics Design Conference.
Yongtian Wang, Beijing Institute of Technology, China
Freeform optical system design and applications
Freeform optics can improve the performance of an optical system, and at the same time reduce its size and weight. Special methods for designing freeform optical systems are described. They are applied in the design of freeform head-mounted displays (HMD), for which the size and weight of the optical system are critical.
Yongtian Wang received his B.Sc. degree in precision instrumentation from Tianjin University, China, in 1982, and his Ph.D. degree in optics from the University of Reading, England, in 1986. He is currently a professor of optics and applied computer science in Beijing Institute of Technology, and a Yangtze River Scholar appointed by the Chinese Ministry of Education. His research interests include optical design and CAD, optical instrumentation, 3D display, image processing, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies and applications. Dr. Wang is a Fellow of SPIE, a Fellow of IET and a director of the Chinese Optics Society. He is also a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
James C. Wyant,
Optical Testing and Testing Instrumentation Part I
Optical techniques for the measurement of flat surfaces, spherical surfaces, windows, prisms, and corner cubes will be described. The basics of direct phase measurement interferometry, including temporal phase-shifting and spatial phase-shifting, will be discussed. Techniques for measuring optical surfaces more accurately than the reference surface will be given.
Optical Testing and Testing Instrumentation Part II
Optical techniques for the measurement of aspheric surfaces, including freeform optics, will be presented. Null tests using conventional null correctors and computer-generated holograms will be described. Non-null tests including SCOTS, scanning pentaprisms, shearing and two-wavelength interferometers, and interferogram stitching will be discussed. The relationship between interferograms and moiré patterns will be presented.
James C. Wyant is professor at the
Xuejun Zhang,Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics,CAS,China
Design, Fabricating and Testing Freeform Surfaces for Space Optics
Freeform surfaces provide more design freedoms to imaging system without introducing new types of aberrations, therefore better performance can be expected. First in this talk, the design theory of imaging optical system with freeform surfaces was introduced and issues such as tolerancing , manufacturability were discussed; Based on that, fabrication and testing of freeform surfaces were discussed; Particularly，deterministic polishing techniques including CCOS, Magnetic Medium Assisted and Ion Beam polishing were presented in detail. Since testing is critical to make high accuracy freeform surfaces, the talk also addressed several testing techniques for different fabrication processes varying from rough grinding to fine polishing. Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) design and implement to measure large freeform mirrors were discussed in detail. Finally, some real world examples were given to show the advantages of freeform surfaces in space optics.
Xuejun Zhang received his Ph.D degree from Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (CIOMP) in 1997. He is now vice president of CIOMP and director of Key Laboratory of Optical Manufacturing and Testing. Dr. Zhang has been engaged in optical system design, manufacturing and testing for more than 20 years, as principle investigator，he has completed numbers of national research projects and won three National Awards for Achievements in Science and Technology (1999, 2008, 2011). He is now in charge of 5 national projects and also the leader of the team of 30 Meter Telescope (TMT) Tertiary Mirror Manufacturing. Dr. Zhang is members of SPIE and OSA and has published over 100 peer reviewed technical papers.